Happy New Year 2010

1 Year of Happiness; 12 Months of Fun; 52 Weeks of Gladness; 365 Days of Success; 8760 Hour of Good Health; 525600 Minutes of Good Luck; And may you enjoy every second of it.

December 18, 2009

Library Automation in Birendra Sainik Awasiya Mahavidyalaya

Automation means a system in which a workplace or process has been converted to one that replaces or minimizes human labor with mechanical or electronic equipment. The term Library automation is used to describe the organization, storage, location, and retrieval of encoded information in computer systems. Library automation is the use of data processing machines to perform such regular library activities as acquisitions, cataloging, circulation, serials, and online public access catalogue (OPAC) etc. Although these activities are not necessarily performed in traditional ways, the activities themselves are those traditionally associated with libraries: library automation may thus be distinguished from related fields such as information retrieval, automatic indexing and abstraction, and automatic textual analysis.

Development of Libraries in BSAM

Library plays a central role in an academic institution. It is the heart of the institution and an indicator of its quality and standard. It supports to impart quality education, and therefore, must be updated constantly with sufficient educational materials. It is this principle that has led BSAM to update its facilities and resources, and to purchase books and journals through its regular budget. Now, BSAM has three libraries; Central Library, Campus Library, and Children’s Library. BSAM Library previously used CDS/ISIS a software developed and distributed by UNESCO for information storage and retrieval. Keeping in view the developments in the field of technology, it has become necessary to automate all activities of library.

Library Software's in Nepal

Large numbers of library software's have been developed by the librarians and the information scientists all over the world. The Library software's used in Nepal are MINISIS, MAITRAYEE, LIBSYS, SOUL, KOHA, ALICE, ATHENA, MIDAS, LIBRA, LIMS and LIBINF, etc.

Need for Automation in BSAM Library
Various factors have contributed to bring about change from conventional to automated library activities. Broadly speaking, the main reasons behind this change are:
• Growth of documents
• Growth of users
• Users services
• Greater efficiency
• Cooperation and resource sharing
• Creation of user friendly environment
• Developing interest among Users


Koha is full featured modern integrated software developed for the Horowhenua Library Trust by Katipo Communication, Wellington in 1999. It is web based OPAC system. It can tailor full catalogue, circulation, acquisitions system for library stock management and serial management models. It is simple, clear search interface for all users. It can manage online and off line resources with the same tool. It runs on windows as well as Linux operating systems. In BSAM Library, Koha is running on Linux operating system because Linux is free and open source software. This installation is based on centos 5 is a Linux operating system including MYSQL, Apache and Perl. Yes, window is users friendly but Z39.50 Servers can not be run on windows. Z39.50 is an international standard for searching and retrieving information from remote databases. In practice, it provides a way for libraries to search and retrieve records from other libraries. Therefore it saves the time of staffs/users. Koha can generate Spine and Barcode label which is minimum requirement of an automated library. Librarian can send massage or note to members and circulation Section.

OPAC stands for On-Line Public Access Catalog which is the major attractions of Koha. It has a powerful OPAC with a choice of search options and variety of display formats. It has good facilities for searching books. Library users can search their required books easily and know how many books of particular Author, Title, Subject, Serial Title, Item Barcode, Call Number, ISBN, Publisher's etc. are available in the library and its branch or on loan. If required books are not available members can reserved the books. If users do not know the full name of title, author, and subject; can use Dictionary Search. Users can search latest books available in the library or suggest the librarian to buy the required books.

General Features of KOHA
• Simple, clear interface for Librarians and Members (Patrons)
• Customizable Search
• Circulation and Borrower Management
• Cataloging Module with integrated Z39.50 client
• Full Acquisitions System including Budgets and Pricing information and Simple Acquisitions System for the smaller libraries
• Ability to cope up with any number of Branches, Patrons, Patron Categories, Item Categories, Currencies and other data
• Serials System for magazines or newspapers
• Reading Lists for Members

Information technology and computers have modernized our life and libraries are no exception to it. Therefore, library automation is the need of the information age. BSAM Library started its automation work in the beginning of 2008. Circulation report records that it was circulated books at first time in 18th May 2008. BSAM Library is the first library in Nepal which is circulating its documents by using Koha. Koha is free Library Software and it avoids duplication. It hopes to make its circulation system and transaction works systematic and fast with the implementation of barcode in all its collections.

• Riaz, Muhammad(1992). Library automation, Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, New Delhi.
• Shah, Steve; Soyinka, Wale(2005), Linux administration: a beginner's guide, 4th ed., Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing, New Delhi.
• Vaidya, Bina (2008), Use of Library Software in Nepal: a case study of TUCL, TULSSAA: a journal of library and information science, Kathmandu, Vol. 6. Issue No. 1. April 2008.

• www.kohadocs.org
• www.koha.org

December 17, 2009

Othering of National and Cultural Texts of Nepal in Libraries

In the 19th century and with the rise of democracy, libraries began to be looked upon as instruments of social change. Libraries were democratized and thrown open to all sections of society. To meet the new challenge and fulfill the exceptions of society, libraries underwent many changes. Open access to the collection was introduced. Thus, allowing readers to browse through books on shelves. This change required more scientific and efficient methods for the storage, location and re-shelving books. A library classification is a system of coding and organizing library materials according to their subject and allocating a call number to that information resource. Classification systems in libraries generally play two roles. Firstly they facilitate subject access by allowing the user to find out what works or documents the library has on a certain subject. Secondly, they provide a known location for the information source to be located.

Definition, Need and Purpose of Library Classification
Library classification is a system of arrangement of documents on shelves adopted by a library to enable patrons to find its material quickly and easily.
For the purpose of dissemination, documents must be properly organized in a library. A disorderly collection of documents does not serve properly to the users of a library. The larger the number of unorganized documents, more difficult it is to locate a particular document.
When document of libraries is classified, it brings the books of similar subjects and its divisions together, saves time of users and staffs, reveals the weakness and strength of the collection on a particular subject, enables systematic revision of an addition to the stock possible, helps in circulation, cataloguing, bibliographical research, and stock verification.

Arrangement of Books on Shelf in the past
Library was used to arrange books on shelves by fixed location system or by accession number. Fixed location system consists of giving a location mark to each book in the library. For example, a book marked as 234.16, means 16th book placed on 4th shelf in the 3rd room on second floor. In accession number, all the documents acquired by the library right from its inception, are entered serially in an accession register, and assigned a serial number, or accession number, which can be used for arrangement of books on shelf. However, in such a library, browsing among the shelves in an open access system will not be useful. Using these methods of arrangement of books on shelf the books of same subjects and its division are scattered. In the 20th century, libraries opened their stacks to the public and started to shelve the library material itself according to some library classification schemes to simplify subject browsing.

Library Classification System
There are large numbers of library classification schemes in the world. Among them there are two kinds of scheme; general and special. The general classification scheme covers all subjects however special classification scheme is limited to a specific subject. The most popular library classification schemes are Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) devised by Melvil Dewey in 1876 from United States, Expansive Classification (EC) formulated by Charles Ammi Cutter in 1891 from USA, Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) is developed by Henri La Fontaine and Poul Otlet (for FID) in 1905 from Belgium, Library of Congress Classification (LC) is originated by Herbert Putnam (for Library of Congress) in 1904 from USA, Subject Classification (SC) is designed by James Duff Brown in 1906 from Great Britain, Colon Classification (CC) is formulated by S. R. Ranganathan in 1933 from India, Bibliographic Classification (BC) is devised by H. E. Bliss in 1935 from British Common Wealth countries and Octadecimal Classification (OC) is devised by Manoj Kumar Sah in 2005 from Nepal. Among them DDC is simple for users due to its simple notation and almost enumerative nature. So, DDC is used in almost all libraries of Nepal except a few special ones.

Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC)
The DDC was conceived by Melvil Dewey in 1873 and first published in 1876. Now 22nd edition is published in 2004. The DDC is the most widely used library classification system in the world. It is used in more than 135 countries, and has been translated into over 30 languages.
DDC is a hierarchical scheme, which proceeds from general to specific, using the decimal principle for the subdivision of knowledge. The basic structure of DDC is to divide whole universe of knowledge into ten main classes. The ten main classes are further subdivided into ten divisions and each division into ten sections and so on. The ten main classes are General subjects (000-099), Philosophy and psychology (100-199), Religion (200-299), Social sciences (300-399), Language (400-499), Science and mathematics (500-599), Technology (600-699), Arts and recreation (700-799), Literature (800-899), and History and geography (900-999).
In DDC, Languages (400) are kept far away from Literature (800), and Political Science (320) is separated from History/Geography (900). It is interesting to record H. E. Bliss's (Originator of Bibliographic Classification) observation who said these major separations are enough to disqualify any organization of knowledge.
Being the product of the 20th century, Dewey could not foresee the turbulent growth, which has taken place in Natural Science and Social Sciences. He undervalued them in comparison to philosophy, Language, Literature, and History and congested all the subjects in Social Sciences (300).
DDC does not have a theoretical basis and, therefore, does not provide for the accommodation of newly developed subjects. Such a scheme is revised from time to time to include newly emerging subjects. It was not able to incorporate changes and additions of new branches of knowledge, particularly in the fields of engineering and computer science.

Notational System of DDC
The whole system of numbers representing the terms in a scheme of classification is called notational system. The notational system of a scheme of classification may use either Indo-Arabic numerals (0 to 9) or Roman capitals (A to Z), or Roman smalls (a to z), or a combination of them. "Since the class number is used only for arrangement and not for counting. Therefore, the digits used in the notational system need not consist only of letters of an alphabet or Arabic numerals. It may have mixed notational system also" (Kent:1971, P. 164). However, DDC is used Indo-Arabic numerals as notation. Therefore, it is easy for both librarian and users due to its simple notation. It has only one facet indicator, zero. This is widely used, and in some places it is found that four zeros as a facet indicator. Facet indicator means a digit used to introduce notation representing a characteristic of the subject, e. g. L is a facet indicator for Language, T is for time, P is for person, M is for Matter, etc. (in Octadecimal Classification).
The class number of minute subjects is lengthy due to limited number of notations.

Ordinal value of digit in DDC
Each digit of a base has a particular ordinal value, which defines the position of a digit in a series. The ordinal value of the digits, that facilitates the arrangement of entities in a group in classification. Melvil Dewey was the first to use this principle for the arrangement of subjects in his scheme. It is for this reason that he is regarded as the father of modern library classification.

Capacity of the Notational System
The capacity of the notational system is defined as the maximum number of classes that can be accommodated in a scheme for classification. We know that the universe of subjects is growing at an unstable and ever fast rate. The digits that can be used in a scheme of classification are limited in number, while the number of classes to be represented by them in a scheme is fairly large. Even after the scheme of classification has come into existence, the newly growing subjects and their subdivisions have to be accommodated at their rightful places.

Decimal Fraction Notation
Melvil Dewey realized the need for accommodating classes, their divisions, subdivisions, and further subdivisions in a filiatory sequence. The term filiatory is derived from the word filial which means having or assuming the relation of a child or offspring (a person's child). In other word filial can be used to describe the relationships which exist between a son or daughter and his or her parents. The genius of Dewey solved this problem by using decimal fraction notation which is nothing but the use of decimal numbers rather than integer numbers. The advantage of decimal fraction notation over integer notation is that the place value of the digits in decimal notation does not change even when any other digit is added at the right end.

The Other Device in DDC
Melvil Dewey managed to organize different subjects and their subdivisions fairly well by the help of decimal fraction notation. However, adjustment of coordinate classes created some difficulty, due to the short base (0 to 9) that DDC used. Coordinate class means describes a number or topic at a level equal to another number or topic in the same hierarchy. The universe of knowledge is so much exhaustive that it is not possible to divide it into ten classes and sub-classes only at each stage. Therefore, at each stage in second and successive division, the ninth class (digit 9) is used for accommodating remaining subjects at each stage. Other is a grammatical word used to show that a thing, person, or situation is additional or different. The other class was meant to put whatever is left out in a coordinate class. Indeed, the remaining class 'other' represented by '9' was a bundle of classes, which were to be used for the next order of the arrangement. For example major literatures of the world have been represented by 1-8 under main class literature and literatures of remaining languages have been accommodated under the digit 9. Therefore, English language is denoted by only 2 and Nepali language is denoted by 91495. The other device (othering) of DDC is used frequently for non-Western local texts. The Classification schemes in the world are somewhat focused toward their country of origin thereby ignoring the other country. Habitually "a classification scheme reflects the culture in which it was created". It is verified further that "any classification of knowledge can be influenced by the political and cultural philosophy of the individual(s) who first structured the scheme"(Vann:1967, P. 67). So, DDC is biased towards American subjects.

Othering of Nepalese texts
The national and cultural texts of Nepal like culture, philosophy, history, religion, sociology, arts, language and literature etc. are either othering or neglected or separated from its coordinate classes. The numbers of digit for Nepalese texts are comparatively lengthy.
i. Religions of Nepal in DDC: Religion is one of the important fields of humanities. It is concerned with people’s beliefs and practices in relation to God and Gods or the supernatural. The main class Religion (200) is divided into Philosophy and theory of religion (210), the digits 220 to 280 represents Christianity, and the single notation 290 is used for other religions of the world. The notation 290 is subdivided as the notation 294 is for Religions of Indic origin, the notation 294.3 is for Buddhism, and notation 294.5 is for Hinduism. Major Nepalese religions; Hinduism and Budhism are othered from the majority. The Kirat religion of Nepal is not defined in DDC. According to the 2001 census, 80.6 percent of Nepalese are Hindu, 10.7 percent are Buddhist, 10% are Muslim, and 3.6 percent are Kirat.
ii. Languages of Nepal in DDC: The major eight languages are enumerated and remaining is othered. The main class 400 represents Language. The main class 400 is further divided as Linguistics (410), English (420), German (430), French (440), Italian (450), Spanish (460), Latin & Italic (470), Classic (480), and Other languages (490). The sections and subsections of other languages (490) is East Indo-European language (491), and Modern Indic language (491.4). The notation 491.49 represents Other Indo-Aryan languages, and the notation 491.495 represents Nepali language. National Languages of Nepal have been removed from the majority and denoted by other device.
iii. Literature of Nepali Language in DDC: The major eight literatures are enumerated and remaining literature is othered. The main class 800 represents Literature. The main class 800 is further divided as American English literature (810), English (820), German (830), French (840), Italian (850), Spanish (860), Latin & Italic (870), Classic (880), and Other literatures (890). The sections and subsections of other literatures (890) is East Indo-European literature (891), and Modern Indic literature (891.4). The notation 891.49 represents Other Indo-Aryan literatures, and the notation 891.495 represents Nepali language literature. Literature of Nepali language has been removed from the majority and denoted by other device.
iv. Geographical Area of Nepal in DDC: It is the largest, and the most important table, in the scheme. The need to add area notation usually arises when a subject is studied within the content of a given geographical area. In the 21st edition of DDC, this is the largest of all the auxiliary tables running from page 34 to 404. The area notation (-1) represents Areas, regions, places in general, digit (-2) represents Persons, similarly the digits (-3) the ancient world, (-4) Europe, (-5) Asia orient Far East, (-6) Africa, (-7) North America, (-8) South America and (-9) other parts of world. Asia orient Far East (-5) is further subdivided as (-54) South Asia & India, Sections (-541) to (-548) are used for India and (-549) is used for Other Jurisdictions. The area notation (-5496) is used for Nepal. Therefore, Nepal from geographical area has been removed from the majority and denoted by other device.
v. Racial, Ethnic, National Groups of Nepal in DDC: This table enumerates notation for the specific racial, ethnic or national groups, these notations may be added to other notations through the 'add note'. Throughout the schedule there are number of instructions to add this table. The classification of Table 5 is North Americans (-1), British, English, Anglo-Saxons (-2), Nordic (Germanic) people (-3), Modern Latin Peoples (-4), Italians, Romanians, related groups (-5), Spanish and Portuguese (-6), Other Italic peoples (-7), Greeks and related groups (-8), and Other Racial, Ethnic, National Groups (-9). The notation (-9) is further subdivided as Other Indo-European peoples (-91), South Asians (-914), Other Indic peoples (-9149), and Nepali people (-91495). Racial, Ethnic, and National Groups of Nepal from Table 5 have been removed from the majority and denoted by other device.

vi. The Comparison of history of Nepal with India in DDC
History of South Asia 954
History of India 954
History of Northeastern India 954.1
History of Bihar 954।12
History of New Delhi 954.56
History of New Delhi during Jawaharlal Nehru 954.56042
History of Other Jurisdictions 954.9
History of Nepal 954।96
History of Lउम्बानी ९५४.96
The above example shows that the class number of South Asia and India are same but it should not be so. Notation helps to show the coordinate and subordinate relationship of classes, as shown above. The Class Number 954 is for Indian history so the digit after 954 is a part of India for example History of Northeastern India (954.1), History of Bihar (954.12), and History of New Delhi (954.56). According to the other device of DDC the class number 954.9 means other part of India and the class number of Nepal is 954.96 means Pakistan (5491), Bangladesh (5492), Sri Lanka (5493), Maldives (5495), Nepal (5496), and Bhutan (5498) appear a part of India because the subdivisions of DDC in a filiatory sequence. This fact has been supported by Pushpa Dhyani in 1975 not only found “Indian religions and languages misinterpreted in the DDC schedule but also objected to the inclusion of Pakistan and Sri Lanka in India (54)".
The class number of the subject 'History of Lumbini during Gautam Buddha' is 954.96 only because the geographical subdivision and historical period of Nepal are not assigned in DDC. "Add as instructed under 930-990; however do not add historical periods." (Dewey:1996, P. 903). That is, Nepal is not allowed to add period in Nepalese history.
vii. Nepal Collection in Libraries of Nepal
Collection means Library Locations. It is a suitable symbol to be determined by each individual library, and added to the Class Number and Book Number to indicate the collection to which the book belongs. It means upper marks of spine label (Book label) in book and catalogue is called collection number. Here R/423/DIC, R is used for collection number, the number 423 is for Class Number and DIC is for Book Number, and the combination above three is called Call Number. In a library catalogue and in the documents them-selves of a library collection Number is necessary for location and replacement. It saves the time of users. Examples in context of Nepalese Libraries: General Collection, Reference Collection, Textbook Collection, Periodicals Collection, Government Documents Collection, and Special Collection. General Collection means most of the documents available in libraries and most of the users use this collection compare to other collections. The local texts are considered as General Collection of that area. Generally, in every country national languages of a country are considered as General Collection. But in Nepal many libraries have used Nepalese texts as Nepal Collection. Nepal Collection in Nepal shows the othering of local texts of Nepal in libraries.

viii. All Local Texts of Nepal is Othered
Mnemonic is one of the most important qualities of notation. The word 'Mnemonics' has originated from Greek word which means to remember. The dictionary meaning of the word is ' the art of assisting memory'. The mnemonic quality of notation is of great importance for all the schemes of classification. Mnemonic notation simply means that a subject, or isolate, represented by a particular number at one place should be consistently represented by the same number in the whole scheme of classification. In DDC, mnemonics are available for subject synthesis. The use of consistent order in the subject division of different classes produces mnemonics. There are various tables, such as Area table, Language table, Standard subdivision table, etc which are used to achieve subject synthesis. For example Nepal must always be denoted by 5496.
For example
History of Nepal 954.96
Geography of Nepal 915.496
Public libraries in Nepal 027.45496
Birds of Nepal 598.095496
Reading interests of Nepali people 028.5508991495
Nepali-language collection 089.91495
Comprehensive works on general newspapers in Nepal 079.5496
Comprehensive works on general organizations in Nepal 068.5496
Nepali-language serial publications 059.91495
Nepali-language encyclopedia 039.91495
If the class number of Nepal in Table 2 of DDC is othered, then every local text of Nepal is othered. Similarly Nepali language and Racial, Ethnic, National Groups of Nepal from table 6 and table 5 are othered. For example: Agriculture in Nepal, Economics in Nepal, and Libraries in Nepal. Therefore, all texts of Nepal are othered.
Developing trends of Nepalese documents
In 21st century, the information is growing every moment. Nepal is not exception of it. The basic factors for the development of Nepalese texts are; in Nepal the literacy percent is increasing day by day, the university and institutions for higher learning are increasing, the number of scientists and engineers are increasing, the number of people engaged in research in universities are growing rapidly, multi-disciplinary research work in different fields are in progress. The method of book production is cheaper and easier due to democracy in knowledge and education. The news in local languages is also publishing in Gorkhapatra every day. Such languages are Awadhi, Bajika, Bhojpuri, Danuwar, Dhimal, Gurung, Himali Bhote, Jirel, Kisan, Limdu, Magar, Maithali, Majhi, Marwari, Nepal, Rai, Sherpa, Sunwar, Tajpuria, Tamang, Thami, Tharu, Uranv, and Urdu. It helps to produce documents in local languages and preserve them. Now an author can live on writing. The publications are also increasing. It is good indication for researchers and users but it is challenging the librarians and information scientists to organize and disseminations the documents by using western system.

Challenges for Librarians of Nepal
With the emergence of new disciplines, ever-increasing trend of mass publication as well as the advent of information technology the role of librarians in organization and dissemination of knowledge has expanded even further. Now it has become imperative for the librarians to organize in such a manner that could help reduce the time of library personals in organizing and also helping them to reduce the time of users in retrieving their desired library documents with ease and accuracy in a least possible time.
If we are asked a particular book of 'History of New Delhi during Jawaharlal Nehru’, the library staff will easily locate the book. According to DDC structure 9 is denoted for history+ 5456 is for New Delhi+ 042 is enumerated for Jawaharlal Nehru period. The class number of the book is 954.56042.
In Nepalese context if a member of library asks a particular book of 'History of Lumbini during Gautam Buddha, the library staff can not locate exact class number. Our system will fail to construct particular number for Zones of Nepal as well as the period of history. We have to search all history books of Nepal one by one or consult library catalogue. If a library has more than two books on the same subject but of different authors then all the books are scattered. Most local subjects are not assigned even if assigned, not well managed. Library classification saves the time of librarians as well as users. But it takes time while using DDC.

Politics of DDC
According to Vann's survey, India is the largest user of the DDC in the orient. By the middle of 1925, few schedules of Colon Classification were prepared. While Ranganathan was experimenting his schemes in Madras University Library Melvil Dewey wrote a letter to Ranganathan on 13th November 1930. "Naturali the sistem 1st publisht in 1876 was from the standpoint of our American libraries. Thru the 12 editions it has constantli broadened. But we need speciali to cover Asia mor adequateli and hope we shall hav yur aktiv cooperation in making the decimal sistem stil mor wydli useful"(Ranganathan: 1979, 3rd ed. P. 131). After 16th edition DDC has adopted and expanded Indian local subjects. The Hindi translation of the DDC based on the 18th edition was also published by Forest Press in 1976. Therefore, after Colon Classification DDC has accepted Indian subjects.
Dissatisfied with Geographical subdivision of Nepal, Mr. Bhola Kumar Shrestha (executive member of Nepal Library Association) has expanded Nepal and requested to Forest Press (publication of DDC) to publish in coming edition but DDC cannot published.
Neglected texts of Nepal in DDC
The local texts and beliefs of Nepal like culture, custom, philosophy, history, religion, arts, language and literature, and other social texts are not thoroughly assigned in DDC. A universal and a general scheme like DDC can not thoroughly map all the local texts of other countries. Therefore, local texts must be tackled locally. When the DDC was rapidly applied in the libraries throughout the world, librarians outside America began to take notice of the neglect of their national and cultural texts. Such foreign librarians though dissatisfied with DDC compelled to use it. John A. Humphry, an executive director of Forest Press, publisher of the DDC believed that "it is fair to say that the DDC once reflected the isolationist position of the United States and its people"(Humphry: 1977, P. 10). Similarly Benjamin A Custer, now the editor emeritus of the DDC, admitted in his introduction to the 16th edition that "there is no avoiding the fact that historically the DDC is based upon a Protestant, Anglo-Saxon culture"(Custer: 1958, P. 15). Melvil Dewey himself was aware of this limitation, and always encouraged systematic and authorized expansions of his scheme to serve local situations.
DDC is almost enumerative classification scheme for libraries. This type of scheme enumerates most of the subjects of past, present, and future. Many local subjects of Nepal have not been enumerated. Like Historical period of Nepal, however, "The history of the area can also be subdivided by periods of time, such as centuries or decades" (DDC 21st p. 957), Geographical subdivisions of Nepal, National Languages of Nepal, Ancient Nepal, Kirat religion and its philosophy, Racial, Ethnic, national Groups of Nepal are not enumerated. Periods of literature are also neglected.
Some libraries of other countries use two classifications - the DDC for general subjects and a home-made classification, totally independent of the DDC for local subjects. Korea, Japan, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Pakistan and Middle Eastern countries, for example, have locally devised schemes for local subjects. This fact has been supported by Vann's survey. The Field Survey of the DDC Abroad conducted in 1964 mostly in Asia & Africa. The purpose of the survey is “To make the classification more useful to the libraries where it has been adopted". In Asian countries, the use of two classifications, one for Oriental and one for Western languages, is a common practice".
Broad Classification of Cultural Heritage of Nepal
Nepal, in respect of cultural heritage is one of the richest members of the world cultural community. It is a homeland of several caste/ethnic groups of people. The difference in life style of these people, in aggregate, reflects varieties in culture. The culture, festivals, clothing and languages of people differ from the Mountain to Terai. There are various types of folk dances, music and songs prevailed in the country. Several languages are spoken as mother tongue like Nepali, Maithili, Bhojpuri, Tharu, Tamang, Newari, etc. All the languages spoken as the mother tongue in the various parts of Nepal are the national languages. Nepal is very rich in arts and architects too. Nepal's fine art, magnificent wood and stone carvings and pagoda type of architects are famous in the world.
Due to the broad class number in DDC, the Class Number of any zone of Nepal is same and so is with different languages. DDC has also not further subdivided the Tibeto-Burman languages. Therefore, the Class Number of the popular languages of Nepal is also the same like Newari, Chepang, Magar, Limbo (Limbu), Sunwar. Unavailability of local subjects of Nepal in DDC, have created challenges among Nepalese librarians.

In libraries the books are arranged on the library shelves in a helpful filiatory order according to their specific subjects. The books dealing with one particular subject are grouped together and books with subjects related to them are placed nearby on the right and left side of the books on any subject depending upon the subject affiliation. Therefore, location of books becomes easy. The authors have developed schemes of classification to enable the library scientist to choose the best or suitable scheme of classification for systematizing their libraries. All existing classification schemes have their own merits and demerits. There is not any classification scheme properly suitable in Nepalese context. The local texts of Nepal have been removed from the majority and denoted by other device in DDC. Therefore, the texts on Nepalese people, language, literature and country are othered. The problems by using DDC can be solved with the active participation of librarians and Classifiers of Nepal. Such problems are not only in Nepal but prevail throughout the developing countries. There are many options in DDC schedule to give local emphasis and a shorter number. There are many options to solve such problems like expansion and adaptation, translation in national language including local text and excluding others' local texts, the use of artificial notation, and transposition for representation of the Nepalese texts and devise a scheme for local subjects.

• Adhikari, Indra Prasad (2065), Pustakalaya tatha srot kendra : byavasthapan eavam sanchalan, Library Management and Information Service Center, Kathmandu.
• Comaromi, John P. and Satija, M. P.(1989), Dewey Decimal Classification : history and current status, Sterling Publishers, New Delhi.
• Corea, Ishvari; Ojuando, Gad David; Farugi, Khalid Kamal (Ed.) (1993), Encyclopedia of information and library science, Akashdeep Publishing House, New Delhi.
• Custur, Benjamin A. (1958), Dewey Decimal Classification and relative index, devised by Melvil Dewey 16th ed. Forest Press, New York.
• Dewey, Melvil (1996), Dewey decimal classification and relative index, Mitchell, Joan S. (Ed.), 21st ed., Forest, New York.
• Dhyani, Pushpa (1975), Dewey Decimal Classification- an Indian view, International Library Review- 7.
• Humphry, John A.(1977), The Decimal classification and its international commitments in : Dewey international ed J. C. Downing and M. Yelland, The Library Association, London.
• Husain, Shabahat (1993), Library classification facets and analyses, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi.
• Kent, Allen; Lancour, Harold (1971), Encyclopedia of library and information science, Marcel Dekker, New York.
• Ranganathan, S. R. (1960), Colon classification: basic classification, 6th ed., Asia Publishing House, Bombay.
• Ranganathan, S. R. (1979), Prolegomena to library classification, 3rd ed., Asia Publishing House, Bombay.
• Vann, Sarah K. (1967), Dewey Abroad: the field survey of 1964, Lib. Res. and Tech Services, New Delhi.

December 4, 2009

A System of Roll Number in BSAM

The major purpose of the system is to identify the class, section, address, and gender of the students of Birendra Sainik Awasiya Mahavidyalaya. The Roll No. is a system of marks or symbols used to represent entities, processes, facts, or relationships in an abbreviated or nonverbal form. As a code of a particular student, it gives short information related to the student. This system assigns Roll No. to the new comers and does not disturb the existing Roll No. of the old students.
Need of Systematic Roll No. in BSAM
Birendra Sainik Awasiya Mahavidyalaya is a residential institution. All boys' students have to live in hostel. Some girl students are also going to live in hostel from this year. The students of the same class are similar in age, so their dresses, books, boxes, etc. are also similar. Hostel wardens get confused if the roll number is not assigned on the property of individuals. The Roll No. is individualized to separate the particular things of individual. The Roll No. of a student is used not only in a classroom but also in many places like in the library while issuing books, in the fee counter at the time of paying fee, in the lab, in the store, in the administration, in the exam section and so on. If a Roll No is duplicate, then it creates problems in the above section of the institution.
The new system of roll number seeks to create simple, short, easy to remember, and automatic way to update the concerned with basic information about the students at the first glace.
If a student is upgraded from his/her general grade or failed this system cannot update the Roll No. We will easily know the upgraded or failed students with the help of the system.
It does not show the exact year of admission, in case of the students who are admitted in class 5, 6 or 7.
If a student is changed from one section to another section this system can not update.
This system can not allocate more than ten sections, more than 80 students in a particular section and more than 160 students from Bagmati Zone in a particular class.
Notation is a device for mechanizing arrangement, and must be composed of written symbols or signs whose order is defined. Indo-Arabic numerals (from 0 to 9) are used as notation for Roll No. Generally, the number of digits for Roll No of students will be four. Every digit of the Roll No. has its own meaning. First digit represents class, second - section, third - place and fourth - gender of a student.
Capacity of the Notation
The capacity of the notational system is defined as the maximum number of students that can be accommodated in a system. The decimal system in universal use today requires ten different symbols, or digits, to represent numbers and is therefore a base-10 system. The ten different symbols of decimal system are 0 to 9. The maximum capacity of decimal system is the power of ten. The system is like decimal system but not exactly similar to decimal system. Because the total number of class is IV to XII only nine (not ten) and the maximum number of sections are A to H eight (not ten). Therefore, its capacity is less than decimal system. The maximum capacity for whole BSAM students is 8800. The maximum capacity of a particular class is 800. The maximum capacity of a section of a class is 100. The maximum capacity from particular zone in a section of a class is 10 and the maximum capacity from particular zone in class is 80, except Bagmati zone.
How to Assign Roll No of Students
The first digit of the Roll No. represents the class of an individual student. In other words, the last digit of the year in Bikram Sambat contributes to the batch of the student enrolled in the Mahavidyalaya. For example, if a student is admitted in class four in 2066, the first digit of his Roll No. will be 6. Similarly, if a student is admitted in class four in 2067, the first digit of his Roll No. will be 7. Likewise, if a student is admitted in class six in 2066, the first digit of his Roll No. will be 4 because his batch is started in 2064.
The second digit of the Roll No represents the section of an individual student in school level and faculty and section in campus level. 1 is used for section A, 2 is for section B and so on in school level. Similarly, 1 is used for section A of humanities faculty. 2 and 3 are used for section A and B of management faculty. Digit 4 is vacant for future use. Likewise 5, 6, &7 are used for section A, B, & C of science faculty.
The third digit of the Roll No represents the place (permanent address) of an individual student. 0,1 are used for Eastern Development Region, 2, 3, 4, 5 are used for Central Development Region, 6, 7 are used for Western Development Region, 8 is used for Mid-Western Development Region, and 9 is used for Far Western Development Region. In detail these digits for separate zones; 0 is used for Mechi & Koshi, 1 is for Sagarmatha, 2 is for Janakpur, 3 & 4 are for Bagmati, 5 is for Narayani, 6 is for Lumbini, 7 is for Gandaki & Dhaulagiri, 8 is for Rapti, Bheri, & Karnali, and 9 is for Seti & Mahakali.
The fourth digit of the Roll No represents the gender of an individual student. Odd number including 0 is used for boys and even number is used for girls. For more detail, 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, & 9 are used for boys and 2, 4, 6, & 8 are used for girls.
General Instructions of the System
To avoid duplication, first check the existing Roll No. available before providing the Roll No to a new student. If a student is admitted in class 5, 6, or 7 we have to check the existing Roll No. in a particular section of the class, not in all sections or all classes, so it is very easy to check the existing Roll No. If a student is admitted in class IV and XI, we don’t have to check the Roll No. The number of digits of the Roll No for the students whose batch start in the years that end in 0 (i. e. 2070, 2080, etc.) will only be three. In that case, the first digit represents section, second digit represents place and third digit represents gender of a student. For example 9736 is for Manisha Poudel, it means she is a girl of science faculty, class XI, and section C from Bagmati zone.
The Roll Number of a student serves to denote class, section, address, and gender of a particular student without naming them or defining them. This system will save the time of all teaching and administrative staffs to search the particular student among the whole students. The system is very simple anybody can assign the Roll No. of a student. We can easily say that the Roll. No. is right or wrong. If we know the Roll No. of a student we can easily find out class, section, address, and gender of the student. If we are confused in Roll No. which is hand written, for example, whether the last digit is six (6) or zero (0) for Manisha Poudel. She is a girl so last digit must be six not zero. Similarly, we will not be confused with the digit three (3) with eight (8), because all digits are reserved with their special meanings.